Devices Check Drive for Errors with CHKDSK (Check Disk) in Windows 11


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Checking your drives for errors every once in a while can help fix some performance issues. Drive errors can usually be caused by bad sectors, improper shutdowns, bad software, corruption, physical damage, etc...

CHKDSK (Check Disk) checks the file system and file system metadata of a volume (drive) for logical and physical errors.

The chkdsk command is used to check the integrity of the file system on the hard drive and make necessary fixes. The command can also fix bad sectors on your hard drive.

Bad sectors are divided into "Soft bad sectors" and "Hard bad sectors". "Soft bad sectors" are logical bad sectors, and chkdsk can easily fix them. "Hard bad sectors" are due to physical damage to the disk. CHKDSK cannot repair "Hard bad sectors", but it can mark the sectors to stop any data writing to them and prevent issues.

This tutorial will show you how to run CHKDSK to check a drive for file system errors in Windows 11.


You must be signed in as an administrator to run CHKDSK on a drive.



Contents



EXAMPLE: Disk checking running at boot for offline scan

disk_checking_at_boot-1.png
disk_checking_at_boot-2.png





Option One

Check Drive for Errors in File Explorer


1 Open This PC in File Explorer (Win+E).

2 Right click on the drive you want to check, and click/tap on Properties. (see screenshot below)

Check_disk_File_Explorer-1.png

3 Click/tap on the Tools tab, and click/tap on Check under Error checking. (see screenshot below)

Check_disk_File_Explorer-2.png

4 Perform an available option below depending if errors were found on the drive: (see screenshots below)
  • If this is a removable drive with "You don't need to scan the drive", you can click/tap on Scan and repair drive to still scan the drive for errors if wanted.
  • If this is an internal drive with "You don't need to scan the drive", you can click/tap on Scan drive to still scan the drive for errors if wanted.
  • If errors were found on the drive, you can click/tap on Repair drive.
Check_disk_File_Explorer-3.png
]​
Check_disk_File_Explorer-4.png
]​
Repair_this_drive.png
]​

5 The drive will now be scanned for errors. (see screenshots below)

Depending on the size of the drive and any issues, this could take a while to finish.


Check_disk_File_Explorer-5.png
Check_disk_File_Explorer-6.png

6 When the scan has finished, you can click tap on the Show Details link to see the chkdsk log in Event Viewer. Click/tap on Close when finished. (see screenshot below)

If errors were found, you may be prompted to fix them or schedule to scan and fix the drive at boot on the next restart.


Check_disk_File_Explorer-7.png




Option Two

Check Drive for Errors with CHKDSK command



1 Open Windows Terminal (Admin), and select either Windows PowerShell or Command Prompt.

2 Type the command you want to use below into Windows Terminal (Admin), and press Enter. (see screenshots below)

(Scan and fix drive)​
chkdsk <drive letter>: /f

OR​

(Offline scan and fix drive at boot)​
chkdsk <drive letter>: /f /offlinescanandfix

Substitute <drive letter> in the command above with the actual drive letter (ex: "C") of the drive you want to scan for errors.

For example:
chkdsk C: /f

chkdsk C: /f /offlinescanandfix


3 If the volume (drive) is in use, you will get a message to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts, type Y, press Enter, and restart the computer to scan the drive.

chkdsk_offlinescanandfix.png


The following table lists the exit codes that chkdsk reports after it has finished.

Exit codeDescription
0No errors were found.
1Errors were found and fixed.
2Performed disk cleanup (such as garbage collection) or did not perform cleanup because /f was not specified.
3Could not check the disk, errors could not be fixed, or errors were not fixed because /f was not specified.

chkdsk_F.png



That's it,
Shawn Brink


 

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Ghot

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@Brink

I'm confused about two things here.

1. Why don't folks use chkdsk /r (/r implies /f)
2. Why the... /offlinescanandfix ? Plain old chkdsk /f or /r (on the Windows drive), will generate the response... "Do you want to run this at next reboot"



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Brink

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Hello @Ghot, :)

Q1) It depends on if you wanted to try and recover data in any bad sectors or not with the /r parameter. It often takes longer, and data in bad sectors are often unrecoverable anyways.

Q2) The /oflinescanandfix parameter is just an option for those that want to make sure to directly scan and fix a drive at boot.
 

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Ghot

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Hello @Ghot, :)

Q1) It depends on if you wanted to try and recover data in any bad sectors or not with the /r parameter. It often takes longer, and the bad sectors are often unrecoverable anyways.

Q2) The /oflinescanandfix parameter is just an option for those that want to make sure to directly scan and fix a drive at boot.



Yep. The /r switch definitely takes longer. :-)
 

My Computers

System One System Two

  • OS
    Win 11 Home ♦♦♦22000.856
    Computer type
    PC/Desktop
    Manufacturer/Model
    Built by Ghot® [May 2020]
    CPU
    AMD Ryzen 7 3700X
    Motherboard
    Asus Pro WS X570-ACE
    Memory
    G.Skill (F4-3200C14D-16GTZKW)
    Graphics Card(s)
    EVGA RTX 2070 (08G-P4-2171-KR)
    Sound Card
    (onboard) Realtek ALC1220P / ALC S1220A
    Monitor(s) Displays
    Dell U3011 30"
    Screen Resolution
    2560 x 1600
    Hard Drives
    2x Samsung 860 EVO 500GB,
    WD 4TB Black FZBX - SATA III,
    WD 8TB Black FZBX - SATA III,
    DRW-24B1ST CD/DVD Burner
    PSU
    PC Power & Cooling 750W Quad EPS12V
    Case
    COOLER MASTER ATCS 840 Full Tower
    Cooling
    CM Hyper 212 EVO (push/pull)
    Keyboard
    Ducky DK9008 Shine II Blue LED
    Mouse
    Logitech Optical M-100
    Internet Speed
    100/100
    Browser
    Firefox (latest)
    Antivirus
    Bitdefender Internet Security (latest)
    Other Info
    Speakers: Klipsch Pro Media 2.1
  • Operating System
    Windows XP Pro 32bit w/SP3
    Computer type
    PC/Desktop
    Manufacturer/Model
    Built by Ghot®
    CPU
    AMD Athlon 64 X2 5000+ (OC'd @ 3.2Ghz)
    Motherboard
    ASUS M2N32-SLI Deluxe Wireless Edition
    Memory
    TWIN2X2048-6400C4DHX (2 x 1GB, DDR2 800)
    Graphics card(s)
    EVGA 256-P2-N758-TR GeForce 8600GT SSC
    Sound Card
    Onboard
    Monitor(s) Displays
    ViewSonic G90FB Black 19" Professional (CRT)
    Screen Resolution
    up to 2048 x 1536
    Hard Drives
    WD 36GB 10,000rpm Raptor SATA
    Seagate 80GB 7200rpm SATA
    Lite-On LTR-52246S CD/RW
    Lite-On LH-18A1P CD/DVD Burner
    PSU
    PC Power & Cooling Silencer 750 Quad EPS12V
    Case
    Generic Beige case, 80mm fans
    Cooling
    ZALMAN 9500A 92mm CPU Cooler
    Mouse
    Logitech Optical M-BT96a
    Keyboard
    Logitech Classic Keybooard 200
    Internet Speed
    100/100
    Browser
    Firefox 3.x ??
    Antivirus
    Symantec (Norton)
    Other Info
    Still assembled, still runs. Haven't turned it on for 13 years?

    http://www.xtremesystems.org/forums/showthread.php?183088-5000-B-E-on-M2N32-SLI-Dlx-Overclocked&p=2891724#post2891724
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