Windows 10 and Windows 11 Insiders gain new DNS over HTTPS controls


  • Staff
Over the last year, we have been improving the DNS over HTTPS (DoH) functionality in the Windows DNS client. Now we are pleased to introduce you to the different features now available through the Windows Insider program.

To start with, we want to note that the registry key controls documented in our original DoH testing blog post are no longer applicable. As stated there, those instructions were time limited to the initial DoH test rollout. If you did ever set that key, please delete it then reboot your machine before proceeding with the rest of this blog post.

Next, we will be reviewing the new configuration behavior, how Windows will know if a DNS server supports DoH, and what our next steps are in advancing encrypted DNS discovery.

UI

The first control you should try out is the new UI fields in the Settings app, originally announced on the Insider blog. When Windows knows a given DNS server’s IP address has a corresponding DoH server, it will unlock a dropdown that lets you decide whether to require encryption always be used, use encryption but fall back to plain-text DNS when encryption fails, or not to use encryption (the default value).

medium


GPO

For enterprise administrators, we have provided a new GPO for controlling DoH behavior. This will allow the use of DoH to be allowed, required, or prohibited system-wide.
  • Allowed will defer the use of DoH to local settings available in the UI per network adapter.
  • Required will prevent the use of configured DNS servers if they do not support DoH and will disable fallback to plain-text DNS.
  • Prohibited will prevent any local DoH settings from taking effect, ensuring Windows functions as it did before the DoH client using plain-text DNS only.
medium


NRPT

The Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) allows administrators to specify rules for name resolution by namespace. For example, you can create an NRPT rule that specifies all queries for “*.microsoft.com” must be sent to a specific DNS server.

If Windows knows that a DNS server provided in an NRPT rule supports DoH (see the next section for how this works), then the traffic affected by the NRPT rule will inherit the benefits of using DoH. This allows admins who want to use DoH for some namespaces and not others to configure that behavior.

Knowing a server supports DoH

All these mechanisms rely on Windows already knowing a given DNS server IP address supports DoH. We ship a few definitions of known DoH servers in Windows:

Server OwnerServer IP addresses
Cloudflare1.1.1.1
1.0.0.1
2606:4700:4700::1111
2606:4700:4700::1001
Google8.8.8.8
8.8.4.4
2001:4860:4860::8888
2001:4860:4860::8844
Quad99.9.9.9
149.112.112.112
2620:fe::fe
2620:fe::fe:9

Other definitions need to be added using the netsh command. To start with, you can check to see what DoH server definitions we already know by retrieving them:

Using netsh
Code:
netsh dns show encryption


Using PowerShell
Code:
Get-DnsClientDohServerAddress


Then you can add another server definition to the list and ensure it never falls back to plain-text DNS:

Using netsh
Code:
netsh dns add encryption server=<resolver-IP-address> dohtemplate=<resolver-DoH-template> autoupgrade=yes udpfallback=no


Using PowerShell
Code:
Add-DnsClientDohServerAddress -ServerAddress '<resolver-IP-address>' -DohTemplate '<resolver-DoH-template>' -AllowFallbackToUdp $False -AutoUpgrade $True


If you prefer to allow fallback so that when encryption fails you can still make DNS queries, you can run the same commands with the fallback flag toggled to add a new server:

Using netsh
Code:
netsh dns add encryption server=<resolver-IP-address> dohtemplate=<resolver-DoH-template> autoupgrade=yes udpfallback=yes


Using PowerShell
Code:
Add-DnsClientDohServerAddress -ServerAddress '<resolver-IP-address>' -DohTemplate '<resolver-DoH-template>' -AllowFallbackToUdp $True -AutoUpgrade $True


The `-AutoUpgrade` and `-AllowFallbackToUdp` flags together represent the values present in the Setting app per-server dropdown. If for some reason you want to add these DoH server definitions but leave them to use unencrypted DNS for now, you can set the `-AutoUpgrade` flag to false instead of true as in the examples above.

If you want to edit an existing list entry rather than adding a new one, you can use the `Set-DnsClientDohServerAddress` cmdlet in place of the `Add-DnsClientDohServerAddress` cmdlet.

It would be easier for users and administrators if we allowed a DoH server to have its IP address determined by resolving its domain name. However, we have chosen not to allow that. Supporting this would mean that before a DoH connection could we established, we would have to first send a plain-text DNS query to bootstrap it. This means a node on the network path could maliciously modify or block the DoH server name query. Right now, the only way we can avoid this is to have Windows know in advance the mapping between IP addresses and DoH templates.

Coming up next

Going forward, we want to be able to directly discover DoH server configuration from the DNS server. This would mean DoH servers could be used without having to include it in Windows or manually configure the IP address to DoH template mapping. We are currently contributing to two proposals in the IETF ADD WG to enable this: Discovery of Designated Resolvers (DDR) and Discovery of Network-designated Resolvers (DNR). We look forward to updating you with our first tests in supporting DoH discovery!


Source: Windows Insiders gain new DNS over HTTPS controls


See also:
 
Last edited:
Hi Shawn,

This is the first thing I looked for. Where are these doh settings?
 

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    1 TB SSD
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    Chrome and Edge
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    Windows Defender
I don't see the preferred DNS encrytion no matter what I do.
 

My Computers

System One System Two

  • OS
    Windows 11 Pro x64
    Computer type
    PC/Desktop
    Manufacturer/Model
    DIY Photoshop/Game/tinker build
    CPU
    Intel i9 13900KS P/E cores 5.9/4.4 GHz, cache 5.0 GHz
    Motherboard
    Asus ROG Maximus Z790 Dark Hero
    Memory
    64GB (2x32) G.skill Trident Z5 RGB 6400 MT/s
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    Asus ROG Strix 4070 Ti OC
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    Onboard Audio, Vanatoo Transparent One; Klipsch R-12SWi Sub; Creative Pebble Pro Minimilist
    Monitor(s) Displays
    Eizo CG2730 ColorEdge, ViewSonic VP2768
    Screen Resolution
    2560 x 1440p x 2
    Hard Drives
    WDC SN850 1TB nvme, SK-Hynix 2 TB P41 nvme, Raid 0: 1TB 850 EVO + 1TB 860 EVO SSD. Sabrent USB-C DS-SC5B 5-bay docking station: 6TB WDC Black, 6TB Ironwolf Pro; 2x 2TB WDC Black
    PSU
    850W Seasonic Vertex PX-850 ATX 3.0/PCI-E 5.0
    Case
    Fractal Design North XL Mesh, Black Walnut
    Cooling
    EKWB 360 Nucleus Dark AIO w/Phanteks T30-120 fans, 1 Noctua NF-A14 Chromax case fan, 1 T30-120 fan cooling memory
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    Keychron Q3 Max TKL with custom GMK Redsuns Red Samuri keycaps, TX Stabs
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    Logitech G305 wireless gaming
    Internet Speed
    380 Mb/s down, 12 Mb/s up
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    Defender, Macrium Reflect 8 ;-)
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    Runs hot. LOL. SP: P116/E93/M93
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    Apple 13" Macbook Pro 2020 (m1)
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    2560x1600
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    Firefox
As soon as I change from auto to manual and start entering DNS IPs, if the server supports it it is enabled.
 

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    Windows 11 23H2 Current build
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    MSI MEG X570 GODLIKE
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    3x Samsung 980 Pro NVMe PCIe 4 M.2 2 TB SSD (MZ-V8P2T0B/AM) } 3x Sabrent Rocket NVMe 4.0 1 TB SSD (USB)
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    Fractal Design Define 7 XL Dark ATX Full Tower Case
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    Arctic Liquid Freezer III 420 RGB + Air 3x 140mm case fans (pull front) + 1x 120 mm (push back) and 1 x 120 mm (pull bottom)
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    SteelSeries Apex Pro Wired Gaming Keyboard
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    AT&T LightSpeed Gigabit Duplex Ftth
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    Nightly (default) + Firefox (stable), Chrome, Edge , Arc
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    ChromeOS Flex Dev Channel (current)
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    Dell Latitude E5470
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    Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-6300U CPU @ 2.40GHz, 2501 Mhz, 2 Core(s), 4 Logical Processor(s)
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    Dell
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    Logitech MX Master 3S (shared w. Sys 1) | Dell TouchPad
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    Dell
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    AT&T LightSpeed Gigabit Duplex Ftth
I got it sorted. Something is a little strange on my system. It only works if I set DNS to manual in the global IPV6 and IPV4 settings via the control panel. Doesn't work if I try it with a specific wifi network.
 

My Computers

System One System Two

  • OS
    Windows 11 Pro x64
    Computer type
    PC/Desktop
    Manufacturer/Model
    DIY Photoshop/Game/tinker build
    CPU
    Intel i9 13900KS P/E cores 5.9/4.4 GHz, cache 5.0 GHz
    Motherboard
    Asus ROG Maximus Z790 Dark Hero
    Memory
    64GB (2x32) G.skill Trident Z5 RGB 6400 MT/s
    Graphics Card(s)
    Asus ROG Strix 4070 Ti OC
    Sound Card
    Onboard Audio, Vanatoo Transparent One; Klipsch R-12SWi Sub; Creative Pebble Pro Minimilist
    Monitor(s) Displays
    Eizo CG2730 ColorEdge, ViewSonic VP2768
    Screen Resolution
    2560 x 1440p x 2
    Hard Drives
    WDC SN850 1TB nvme, SK-Hynix 2 TB P41 nvme, Raid 0: 1TB 850 EVO + 1TB 860 EVO SSD. Sabrent USB-C DS-SC5B 5-bay docking station: 6TB WDC Black, 6TB Ironwolf Pro; 2x 2TB WDC Black
    PSU
    850W Seasonic Vertex PX-850 ATX 3.0/PCI-E 5.0
    Case
    Fractal Design North XL Mesh, Black Walnut
    Cooling
    EKWB 360 Nucleus Dark AIO w/Phanteks T30-120 fans, 1 Noctua NF-A14 Chromax case fan, 1 T30-120 fan cooling memory
    Keyboard
    Keychron Q3 Max TKL with custom GMK Redsuns Red Samuri keycaps, TX Stabs
    Mouse
    Logitech G305 wireless gaming
    Internet Speed
    380 Mb/s down, 12 Mb/s up
    Browser
    Firefox
    Antivirus
    Defender, Macrium Reflect 8 ;-)
    Other Info
    Runs hot. LOL. SP: P116/E93/M93
    Phangkey Amaterasu V2 Desk Mat
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    Laptop
    Manufacturer/Model
    Apple 13" Macbook Pro 2020 (m1)
    CPU
    Apple M1
    Screen Resolution
    2560x1600
    Browser
    Firefox
New tutorial below to help. :-)

 

My Computers

System One System Two

  • OS
    Windows 11 Pro for Workstations
    Computer type
    PC/Desktop
    Manufacturer/Model
    Custom self build
    CPU
    Intel i7-8700K 5 GHz
    Motherboard
    ASUS ROG Maximus XI Formula Z390
    Memory
    64 GB (4x16GB) G.SKILL TridentZ RGB DDR4 3600 MHz (F4-3600C18D-32GTZR)
    Graphics Card(s)
    ASUS ROG-STRIX-GTX1080TI-O11G-GAMING (11GB GDDR5X)
    Sound Card
    Integrated Digital Audio (S/PDIF)
    Monitor(s) Displays
    2 x Samsung Odyssey G75 27"
    Screen Resolution
    2560x1440
    Hard Drives
    1TB Samsung 990 PRO M.2,
    4TB Samsung 990 PRO M.2,
    8TB WD MyCloudEX2Ultra NAS
    PSU
    Seasonic Prime Titanium 850W
    Case
    Thermaltake Core P3 wall mounted
    Cooling
    Corsair Hydro H115i
    Keyboard
    Logitech wireless K800
    Mouse
    Logitech MX Master 3
    Internet Speed
    1 Gbps Download and 35 Mbps Upload
    Browser
    Google Chrome
    Antivirus
    Microsoft Defender and Malwarebytes Premium
    Other Info
    Logitech Z625 speaker system,
    Logitech BRIO 4K Pro webcam,
    HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M477fdn,
    APC SMART-UPS RT 1000 XL - SURT1000XLI,
    Galaxy S23 Plus phone
  • Operating System
    Windows 11 Pro
    Computer type
    Laptop
    Manufacturer/Model
    Surface Laptop Copilot+ PC
    CPU
    Snapdragon X Elite (12 core) 3.42 GHz
    Memory
    16 GB LPDDR5x-7467 MHz
    Monitor(s) Displays
    15" HDR
    Screen Resolution
    2496 x 1664
    Hard Drives
    1 TB SSD
    Internet Speed
    Wi-Fi 7 and Bluetooth 5.4
    Browser
    Chrome and Edge
    Antivirus
    Windows Defender
Thanks Shawn.
 

My Computers

System One System Two

  • OS
    Windows 11 Pro x64
    Computer type
    PC/Desktop
    Manufacturer/Model
    DIY Photoshop/Game/tinker build
    CPU
    Intel i9 13900KS P/E cores 5.9/4.4 GHz, cache 5.0 GHz
    Motherboard
    Asus ROG Maximus Z790 Dark Hero
    Memory
    64GB (2x32) G.skill Trident Z5 RGB 6400 MT/s
    Graphics Card(s)
    Asus ROG Strix 4070 Ti OC
    Sound Card
    Onboard Audio, Vanatoo Transparent One; Klipsch R-12SWi Sub; Creative Pebble Pro Minimilist
    Monitor(s) Displays
    Eizo CG2730 ColorEdge, ViewSonic VP2768
    Screen Resolution
    2560 x 1440p x 2
    Hard Drives
    WDC SN850 1TB nvme, SK-Hynix 2 TB P41 nvme, Raid 0: 1TB 850 EVO + 1TB 860 EVO SSD. Sabrent USB-C DS-SC5B 5-bay docking station: 6TB WDC Black, 6TB Ironwolf Pro; 2x 2TB WDC Black
    PSU
    850W Seasonic Vertex PX-850 ATX 3.0/PCI-E 5.0
    Case
    Fractal Design North XL Mesh, Black Walnut
    Cooling
    EKWB 360 Nucleus Dark AIO w/Phanteks T30-120 fans, 1 Noctua NF-A14 Chromax case fan, 1 T30-120 fan cooling memory
    Keyboard
    Keychron Q3 Max TKL with custom GMK Redsuns Red Samuri keycaps, TX Stabs
    Mouse
    Logitech G305 wireless gaming
    Internet Speed
    380 Mb/s down, 12 Mb/s up
    Browser
    Firefox
    Antivirus
    Defender, Macrium Reflect 8 ;-)
    Other Info
    Runs hot. LOL. SP: P116/E93/M93
    Phangkey Amaterasu V2 Desk Mat
  • Computer type
    Laptop
    Manufacturer/Model
    Apple 13" Macbook Pro 2020 (m1)
    CPU
    Apple M1
    Screen Resolution
    2560x1600
    Browser
    Firefox

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